9 linguistic and cultural differences for teaching in China
Well first look at four main differences between the English and Chinese languages (speaking rhythm, word stress, pronunciation and grammar), followed by a section of five cultural aspects to be aware of.
Linguistic Differences Between English and Chinese
1. Speaking rhythm
Have you ever noticed how English speakers gabble and dont say each syllable and word with the same degree of clarity? In fact, when were just chatting, there are some words which we almost skip right over, with just a hint of a residual consonant.
In any sentence, the important words or syllables are stressed and spoken at an even, rhythmic pace, almost like the beat you can feel in music. The other (less important) syllables and words just get squashed in between. Heres a simple example:
Dogs chase cats.
Each word is important, so each word is stressed.
Now, lets add some less important unstressed syllables into the mix:
The dogs will be chasing the cats.
These sentences essentially take the same time to say because the stressed syllables still dictate the timing of the sentence. The unimportant, unstressed syllables are tucked in between, and are often reducedsuch as will reduced to apostrophe ll.
In Chinese, however, every syllable has the same value and takes the same amount of time.
Teaching techniques for speaking rhythm
You may have heard of jazz chants or grammar chants, usually said to have been invented by Carolyn Graham. Even though it might seem counter productive because we dont strictly talk like that all the time, there are benefits to using these in class.
Firstly, theyre a lot of fun, and secondly, they emphasize the stress-timed nature of the English language. You can find and use the chants from the websites above, watch videos about Carolyn Graham on YouTube, buy the books, or simply create your own around the sentences that youre currently practicing.
Create 4-beat sequences, and use clapping If there are only three beats in your sentence, you can either have an empty beat on 4 or start the next sentence.
So, for the two sentences above, we could have:
*Note: The extra unstressed words at the end of the line (i.e. and, the) are spoken quickly on the upbeat just before the start of the next line.
Lots of rhythmic speaking practice will give your students a chance to be totally engaged and having fun, and the rhythmic aspect of the language will help them to remember it better, quickly internalizing the grammar.
2. Syllables and word stress
The Chinese language is monosyllabic, meaning that basically each one of their characters is one syllable. Each syllable receives the same amount of attention (same stress, same time allocation) and each has its own tonal shape, giving the language that delightful sing-song sound.
One result of this is that Chinese ESL students tend to pronounce each English syllable too carefully, messing up the word-stress pattern, causing discomfort to English-speaking listeners and sometimes causing confusion by changing the meaning. For example:
DEsert is a place where there is very little water.
deSERT is the action of abandoning someone or a place.
In English, each word is made up of one or more syllables, and each syllable can consist of a vowel (V) or consonant and vowel (CV) or a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) sequence.
An important difference with Chinese syllables is that if they end in a consonant, it can only be an This affects Chinese students pronunciation of English because theyre uncomfortable with syllables that end in other consonants. As a result, youll often hear students adding a vowel usually a schwaafter the consonant. For example:
Get up! might be pronounced Get-a up-a!
Teaching techniques for word stress
Firstly, teach your students the word stress rules. (In my experiences, students actually like to learn these rules.)
Then use games to practice correct word stress and stress patterns until it becomes second nature. For example:
Bingo Use a Bingo card creator to make cards with 25 multiple-syllable words to practice. (Create a card for each student, each card contains the same words in a different configuration.) As students hear the words on their card, they mark the square with small objects such as counters or sunflower seeds. As soon as someone has five markers in a row in any direction, they call Bingo and win the round. You can play the game several times over and Keep playing for second place, third place, etc.) Winners can also take turns being the callerwith you monitoring correct pronunciation.
Scavenger Hunt Each student will need a paper dictionary (English-English). Call out multi-syllable words and have students race to find them in their dictionaries. (This is good practice for using alphabetical listings, another point where Chinese is very different from English.) Once a word is found, students can check the pronunciation and possibly look at and discuss related wordswhich may have a different word-stress pattern (i.e. pho-to-graph vs. pho-to-graph-y). Students can work in teams to select words to call for others to race to find.
Note: Both of these games can be played with a class including ELL students, and also with a whole class of Chinese students.
/l/ and /r/
Its well known that Asian students have difficulties trying to pronounce these two sounds, but often teachers dont realize that they really cannot hear the difference.
The first step is to make sure students clearly understand the physical difference in pronunciation. Demonstrate and practice putting the tip of the tongue against the top of the mouth for (This can be done with the whole class if youre teaching in China, or you can take individual students aside for ELL students in a regular class.)
The second step is to have some fun with pronunciation practice games (shown below, after which can include the whole class.
/v/ and /w/
Chinese students also have difficulties with the difference between Demonstrate and practice touching the top teeth to the bottom lip for Give students mirrors to practice with, and (Again, in a regular class it may be worthwhile to give some private time to ELL students.)
Many ESL students, including Chinese, have difficulties with the Help students make sure that their tongue sticks out between their teeth while they make the sound. They can use a mirror or a partner, and
Play pronunciation games (below) to practice and improve awareness and confidence with these two issues.
Consonant clusters /tr/ /dr/ /st/ /pl/
Chinese students often find it hard to blend consonants together, because there is nothing like that in their first language. Add to that the fact that most of the blends include their nemesisan
Students often need concentrated practice on targeted words and it needs to be fun. So games are best!
Teaching techniques for pronunciation
Here are a few games you can use to work on pronunciation.
Bingo As with word stress above, Bingo is great for focusing on particular words over a period of time.
Chinese Whispers Put students into teams of equal numbers. Give a message (maybe show them something written, or whisper to the group of leaders) to the first in each line. Then students race to pass the message along by whispering from one to another. The final team member runs to you and announces the message. Make sure that there are some of the target sounds in the message.
Beetlejuice Remember the movie? (Heres a trailer.) In the movie they had to same the name (Beetlejuice) three times to make certain things happen. In this game, your students have to say a word (one that they may struggle with) three times in order to get what they want.
You can choose and change the word as often as you need.
Different students could have different target words.
The words could be presented to them hourly
They could be required to repeat their word to leave the class at the end of the lesson, to be allowed to be seated, when they hand in a paper, to receive a treat or rewardit all depends on your class.
These aspects of English grammar are significantly different from Chinese, and can cause confusion.
Sentence structure In English we look for a subject (S), verb (V) and often an object (O). In Chinese the subject is not necessary in every sentence.
Word order Chinese word order is very different from English, and so students who do a direct word-by-word translation will run into difficulties. Also, dates and addresses in Chinese are presented in the opposite order from English. The date is written year-month-day and addresses are written country, province, city, street, house.
Adverb phrases Those phrases of place and time are situated differently in Chinese sentences.
Articles, inflection and agreement English has definite and indefinite articles, but Chinese has no articles. Also, in English the verb changes to agree with the number (singular or plural) of the subject, but Chinese words do not change.
Male and female pronouns Chinese has (written) pronouns for each of the genders, as well as animals and spiritual beings, but they all sound the same in speech. So Chinese students often have difficulties using the correct pronoun in English.
Plurals There are no plurals in Chinese. A number word is placed in front of the noun, or a word that means something like many. So, naturally, remembering to change an English noun because its plural can be troublesome.
Verb tenses English verbs change according to the tense, as well as sometimes by adding auxiliary verbs. Chinese verbs do not change at all. There are a number of ways to express tense in Chinese, such as by adding a time expression or verb particle. So having to change the actual verb in English is confusing for students.
The verb to be The Subject-Verb-Complement (SVC) type of English sentence is difficult for Chinese students, as they tend to miss out the verb to be. For example, The boy is sick will become Boy sick.
Superlatives Chinese language does not include the wealth of superlatives and extravagant language that English does. In fact, recently the Chinese government banned the use of superlatives in advertising.
Forms for written and oral language When you look at English language written down, its the same as how you speak. But in Chinese the two do not correspond in the same way. When looking at a piece of Chinese writing, a speaker of the Cantonese language will read the same meaning but with different words and sounds from a Mandarin speaker.
Literal translation Its not possible to translate literally (and get sensible language) from Chinese to English, or vice versa. But, of course, Chinese students would really like to be able to, and will often trysometimes with amusing results.
Teaching techniques for grammar
Dont let your Chinese students disappear into their dictionaries and word lists, which is often their expectation for language learning. Kindly and gently, with sensitivity to their shyness, bring them lots of varied, fun and engaging activitieswhich they dont usually expect to see in the classroom.
Use an assortment of activities which involve participation and practice of natural English. For example:
Watch movies All students like movies, but especially Chinese students. Watch each movie more than oncemaybe once with Chinese subtitles for beginners, and once with English subtitles, and then without. Get students to mimic, anticipate and dramatize favorite scenes. Transfer this learning into reading and writing by dictating snippets of conversation, or getting students to write a retell or a review of part or all of the movie.
Listen to music Participate in related activities such as singing along, lip-syncing, completing worksheets, writing reviews or participating in a quiz about the song(s).
Listen to stories By using a digital story, students can listen to it again and again. They could listen to you reading it first, and maybe later they could try reading it (aloud) themselves. It could be a homework task which could later translate into an in-class drama exercise (or game), a retelling or a review writing exercise.
Read the news There are websites with specially prepared news stories for ESL students. My Chinese students have been notoriously unaware of world news, and thus can find it enlightening while they improve their language skills. This can lead on to speaking activitiesdrama, quizzes, talksand writing activities which require natural English.
Cultural Differences Between China and the Western World
Whether youre teaching Chinese students in a western setting or theres only one Chinese student in your class, and whether your Chinese students are from Mainland China or elsewhere, the Chinese culture is very strong. Your students will make better progress if you understand and respect it.
And if youre working in China, then its essential to understand the cultural background for your own comfort. Here are some of the most obvious and relevant differences:
5. The importance of education and attitude towards teachers and homework
From the Chinese viewpoint, education is very formal and serious, and teachers are expected to tell students exactly what they need to know. Students are expected to respect teachers, work hard and do lots of homework in order to succeed.
Sometimes the appearance of studyingbeing present (though not necessarily alert) and learning lists of wordsseems to be more important than being engaged in learning.
6. Styles of education and learning in the school, student behavior and motivation
In Chinese education, factual information is important, fantasy is not; science wins over arts. Students expect to be taught steps to solve problems. Teachers must not be questioned or challenged. Reading is simply the decoding of information and facts rather than a pleasurable occupation or discovering opinions to be responded to.
So it comes as a surprise to themwhether within a mainstream western school or with a foreign teacher in their school in Chinato find that theyre expected to problem-solve, without necessarily being told exactly how. There could even be more than one answer to a question.
Youll want to facilitate and model problem solving, and your students should be actively involved rather than passively observing. Encourage them to question you, and help them discover that reading is a constructive process.
7. Families and home life
In Mainland China until very recently, only wealthy families (who could afford the fine) and ethnic minorities in rural areas were permitted to have more than one child. So most children have no siblings, and no aunts or uncles.
Each child has six doting adults (parents and grandparents) pressuring them to succeed for the sake of the family. On top of that, there are far more boys than girls, and boys are often treated with more deference than girls.
8. Special interests and special abilities
Chinese students love numbers, math and things that are predictab